Ticks and Anaplasmosis and Erlichiosis

AVIS À NOS LECTEURS: tel qu’exigé par l’Ordre des médecins vétérinaires du Québec, pour se conformer aux codes de déontologie relatifs à la publicité, les chroniques informatives suivantes qui comportent le logo de notre entreprise, doivent être interprétées comme des publicités. (L’ajout du terme « publicité » sera ajouté progressivement sur chaque chronique au cours de l’année 2016).

The deer tick Ixodes scapularis is a vector (carrier) of two bacterias: Borrelia burgdorferi a bacteria that could cause Lyme disease and the bacteria Anaplasma phagocytophilium that could cause Anaplasmosis.  For more information on Lyme disease, consult the section Ticks and Lyme Disease 

Anaplasmosis

  • The disease:
    • This disease is caused by a bacteria Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and is transmitted to humans and dogs in an accidental way by the deer tick, Ixodes scapularis.
    • The blood gets infected by the bacteria that causes different blood anomalies such as anemia and a drop in the platelets.
    • In the majority of the dogs that are infected, symptoms are not usual and no deaths have been reported. If symptoms occur it usually appears 1-2 weeks after the infection (fever, lethargy, loss of appetite, limping).
  • The situation in Canada:
    • In Canada, the incidence of Anaplasmosis is 0.19%, Manitoba and Ontario having the most cases reported.
  • The diagnosis:
    • The 4DX SNAP test detects the presence of antibodies in the blood produced by the dog when the bacteria is present.   This does not signify an infection, but rather means that the dog has been in contact with the bacteria that causes Anaplasmosis.
    • In the absence of symptoms, various laboratory tests are necessary before deciding whether to treat the condition or not.  In the least a hematology analysis is required.
  • The treatment :
    • In the presence of symptoms, a treatment of antibiotics for 2 weeks is recommended.  The prognosis for this disease is excellent.
  • Prevention :
    • Like all diseases transmitted by ticks, the best prevention is the protection against ticks : avoid the risk areas, inspect your dog on a daily basis especially if he is in the risk areas, remove the ticks immediately when they are observed on the dog and use a preventive like a tick

 

Erlichiosis

  • The disease:
    • This disease is caused by the bacteria Ehrlichia canis, and is transmitted to dogs, foxes and coyotes by the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus.
  • The situation in Quebec :
    • This disease is not frequent in Quebec, because the tick is very rare in the region.
    • However some cases have been diagnosed in dogs living in Quebec that have travelled to the United States or in certain tropical countries.
  • The diagnosis :
    • Like Anaplasmosis, a SNAP 4DX blood test is done to detect the presence of antibodies in the blood, produced by the dog with the bacteria Ehrlichia canis.  Other laboratory tests are necessary for a precise diagnosis before treating the condition.
  • The treatment:
    • Treating Ehrlichiosis is with 4 weeks of antibiotics or longer depending on the case, and  strict veterinary care is necessary for several months.

 

Référence : Hamel-Jolette, Avril. 2013. Mon snap 4DX est positif! Que faire? Formations Bayer. Centre DMV, Lachine.